Department of Characterisation of Materials Structure

Head of department dr. Remigijus JuškėnasEugenijus Norkus
phone +370 5 2648881

  • Mission – to warrant a high international level and competence in the field of characterisation of solids structure and in field of thin films photovoltaics, to qualify high level specialists in these research areas.
  • Objectives – a development of investigations in the field of thin films photovoltaics; to extend a participation in international and Lithuanian scientific projects while performing electron microscopic, x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic investigations.
  • Tasks – to expand investigations of the formation of thin film solar cells; to most effectively apply new equipment for characterisation of structure of solids; to elaborate new techniques for characterisation of structure; to teach young specialists by employing students and graduate students. Open access services on structural analysis and chemical composition of solid materials.

Electron microscopy, x-ray spectroscopy and xrd open access center

  • Development and study of photoactive layers for photovoltaics. Research Council of Lithuania. . Contract number 01.2.2-LMT-K-718. Duration 2014–2020. Head S. Ašmontas 

  • Fast magnetoresistive processes in nanostructured manganite film sensors used for monitoring of electromagnetic forming. Research Council of Lithuania. . Contract number P-MIP-17-470. Duration 2017.03.-2018.11. Head V. Stankevič

  • Bismide nanostructures for mid-infrared devices. Research Council of Lithuania. . Contract number S-MIP-17-25. Duration 2017.10.02-2020.03.31. Head V. Pačebutas,

  • MOCVD growth of III-nitride semiconductors by van der Waals epitaxy on graphene. Research Council of Lithuania. Contract number 01.2.2-LMT-K-718. Duration 2014–2020. Head T.Malinauskas

Services available
  1. XRD investigations of polycrystalline materials:
    1. Qualitative and quantitative phase analysis;
    2. Qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of micro-quantities using polycapillary optics;
    3. XRD examination at a high temperature (from +20 to +1100 °C in vacuum or inert gas atmosphere);
    4. Determination of crystallite size, micro and macro stresses, preferred crystallographic orientation using pole figures;
    5. Investigations of thin films by in-plane technique;
    6. Investigations of epitaxial layers by rocking curves and reciprocal lattice mapping techniques;
    7. Determination of thickness, density and roughness of thin layer and multi-layers by x-ray reflectometry (XRR);
    8. Determination of size distribution of nanoparticles and nanopores by small angle scattering of x-ray (SAXS) in transmission and reflection modes.
  2. Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of powders, minerals, soil, catalysts, ceramics, glass, plastics, metals and alloys using WDXRF, electron microprobe analysis, x-ray photoelectrons and Auger electrons spectroscopy.
  3. Investigations of surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and FE-SEM).
  4. Investigations of cross section using focussed ion beam (FIB) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).
  5. Investigations of internal structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, EDX, EDS).
  6. Surface and metallographic investigations by optic microscopy.
  7. A product testing for fulfilment of RoHS requirements, qualitative and quantitative determination of hazardous materials.

X-ray diffractometer SmartLab (Rigaku, Japan, 2011): 9 kW x-ray tube with rotating Cu anode; Optics for polycrystalline samples: parallel beam/Bragg-Brentano, polycapillary; CALSA – crystal array monochromator of especially high resolution and intensity for diffracted beam (Cu Kα1 for polycrystalline specimens); bent/flat graphite monochromator for diffracted beam;
High resolution optics: Ge monochromators: Ge (220)x2, Ge (220)x4, Ge (400)x2; analysers: Ge (220)x2, Ge (400)x2;
Detectors: scintillation SC-70, 1D (linear) D/teX Ultra, 2D (two dimensional) Pilatus 100K; Sample stages: Eulerian cradle ((Ψ, φ, x, y, z), X-Y (50-50 mm) stage, RxRy stage, stage for powder samples, high temperature stage Anton Paar DHS 1100 (temperatures up to +1100 °C in vacuum or He gas atmosphere);
Vacuumed path for x-rays diffracted at small angles (SAXS);
Special axis for In-plane method;
Powder diffraction database PDF4+ (2017 release).


X-ray diffractometer D8 Advance (Bruker AXS, Germany, 2003 m.): 2,4 kW sealed x-ray tube with Cu anode;
Optics: parallel beam/Bragg-Brentano; V grove Ge monochromator;
Scintillation detector;
Sample stages: Eulerian cradle (Ψ, φ, x, y, z);
Powder diffraction database PDF2 (2003 release).


Fluorescent x-ray spectrometer with wave dispersion (WDXRF) Axios mAX (Panalytical, Netherlands, 2011). 4 kW x-ray tube with Rh anode STmax160;
Detectors: proportional flow, proportional sealed (with Xe gas), highly effective scintillation;
Six crystals-analysers (elements from O to U);
Software: SuperQ – for standard-less quantitative analysis; Ni-Fe-Co – for quantitative analysis of alloys; FP-Multi - for quantitative analysis and determination of thickness of thin films; Pro-Trace - for quantitative analysis of trace elements.


Scanning electron microscope Helios NanoLab 650 (FEI, Netherlands, 2011) with Schottky type field emission electron source, focussed galium ion source – FIB, TEM sample lift-out mechanism Omniprobe 100.7 (Oxford Instruments), platinum deposition and selective carbon mill gas injection systems, cryocleaner and plasma cleaner. X-ray spectrometer INCAEnergy (Oxford Instruments) with X-Max detector. Dedicated for imagining of surface (resolution 0.8 – 0.9 nm), preparation imagining of cross-sections, local chemical analysis.


Scanning electron microscope EVO-50 EP (Carl Zeiss SMT, Germany, 2006) with tungsten and LaB6 electron sources, secondary, VP secondary and backscattered electron detectors, energy and wave dispersion (EDS and WDS) X-Ray spectrometers INCA (Oxford Instruments). Dedicated for imagining of surface, local chemical analysis.


Transmission electron microscope Tecnai G2 F20 X-TWIN (FEI, Netherlands, 2011) with Schottky type field emission electron source. Flexible high tension: 20, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kV. High angle annular dark field (HAADF) detector, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer EDAX with r-TEM detector, 11 MPix ORIUS SC1000B (Gatan) CCD camera, single and double tilt specimen holders, sample plasma cleaner. Resolution (point, line) - (0,25-0,102 nm). Dedicated for studies of internal structure and chemical composition of solid materials and nanostructures.


Carbon and sulphur analyzer CS-2000. Dedicated for precise determination of carbon and sulphur.


Spectrometer of x-ray photoelectrons AXIS Supra+“
(Kratos Analytical, UK, 2019) 

Monochromatic X-ray source with Al/Ag anode to produce X-rays at 1487/2984 eV;

Gas Cluster Ion Source (GCIS, Minibeam 6):

  • Monoatomic Mode – a beam of Ar+ ions of energy 500 eV to 8 keV suitable for sputter depth profiling of inorganic or metallic materials,
  • Cluster Mode – a beam of Arn+ cluster ions is produced at energies up to 20 keV suitable for  the depth profiling of organic and polymeric materials.

Hemispherical analyser (HSA) and spherical mirror analyser (SMA) (elements above Li);

Delay-Line Detector (DLD): scanned spectroscopy, un-scanned snapshot spectroscopy and 2D imaging modes.

Heat and cool accessories allow samples mounted on a heat/cool sample holder to be heated up to +800 °C or cooled to <-100 °C before or during the measurement.

The charge neutraliser provides a source of low energy electrons to neutralise positive charge built up on the insulator sample surface.

Ion Scattering Spectrometry (ISS) – extremely surface sensitive technique, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) – designed for valence band acquisition and electronic workfunction measurement.

The air sensitive transporter allows to  transfer samples that are sensitive to atmospheric contamination or reaction from a clean area.


Equipment for sample preparation:

  • Pulverisette 6 (FRITSCH, Germany) - the ball grinding-mill for a preparation of powder samples (salts, soil, ceramics, minerals) for WD-XRF and XRD measurements. Volume of tungsten carbide bowl 80 ml, 5 balls of tungsten carbide;

  • TP-20 (Herzog, Germany) Hydraulic press for the formation powder samples in the form of tablet (Φ37, Φ20 and Φ10  mm);

  • Eagon 2 (Panalytical, Netherlands, 2011) - fully automated fusion furnace for fused bead sample preparation (Φ27 mm) for fluorescent x-ray spectrometer Axios mAX;

  • Tegramin-25 (Stuers, Denmark) – fully automated system for sample preparation by surface polishing.

Most important publications
  1. Rokas Gegevičius, Marius Treideris, Vidas Pakštas, Marius Franckevičius, Vidmantas Gulbinas. Oxide layer enhances photocurrent gain of the planar MAPbI3 photodetector. Advanced electronic materials. ISSN 2199-160X. 2018, vol.4, iss. 7, art. no. 1800114, p. 1-7.
  2. S.A.Bashkirov, V.F.Gremenok, Remigijus Juškėnas, Raimondas Giraitis, V.V.Rakitin, G.F. Novikov. Effect of precursors pre-annealing on the microstructure of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films on titanium foil substrate. Thin solid films. ISSN 0040-6090. 2018, vol. 664, p. 79-82.
  3. Tatariants Maksym, Samy Yousef, Martynas Skapas, Remigijus Juškėnas, Vidas Makarevičius, Stasė Irena Lukošiūtė, Gintaras Denafas. Industrial technology for mass production of SnO2 nanoparticles and PbO2 microcube/microcross structures from electronic waste. Journal of cleaner production. ISSN 0959-6526. 2018, vol. 203, p. 498-510.
  4. Vidmantas Jašinskas, Florian Oberndorfer, Vidas Pakštas, Tobias Hertel, Vidmantas Gulbinas. Direct tracking of ultrafast carrier motion dynamics in semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes. Journal of physical chemistry C. ISSN 1932-7447. 2018, vol. 122, iss. 28, p. 16424-16430.
  5. Agnė Zdaniauskienė, Tatjana Charkova, Ieva Matulaitienė, Olegas Eicher-Lorka, Algirdas Matijoška, Martynas Skapas, Algirdas Selskis, Gediminas Niaura. Electrochemical shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: bonding, structure, and ion-pairing of the positive charge bearing pyridinium ring terminated monolayer at smooth gold electrode. Journal of physical chemistry C. ISSN 1932-7447. 2018, vol. 122, iss. 2, p. 1234-1242.
  6. Eugenijus Šimoliūnas, Monika Šimoliūnienė, Laura Kalinienė, Aurelija Zajančkauskaitė, Martynas Skapas, Rolandas Meškys, Algirdas Kaupinis, Mindaugas Valius, Lidija Truncaitė. Pantoea Bacteriophage vB_PagS_Vid5: A low-temperature siphovirus that harbors a cluster of genes involved in the biosynthesis of archaeosine. Viruses. ISSN 1999-4915. 2018, vol. 10, iss. 11, art. no. 583, p. 1-14.
  7. Justina Gaidukevič, Jurgis Barkauskas, Anna Malaika, Paulina Rechnia-Gorący, Aleksandra Możdżyńska, Vitalija Jasulaitienė, Mieczysław Kozłowski. Modified graphene-based materials as effective catalysts for transesterification of rapeseed oil to biodiesel fuel. Chinese journal of catalysis. ISSN 0253-9837. 2018, vol. 39, iss. 10, p. 1633-1645.
  8. Aušrinė Zabielaitė, Aldona Balčiūnaitė, Irena Stalnionienė, Svetlana Lichušina, Dijana Šimkūnaitė, Jūratė Vaičiūnienė, Birutė Šimkūnaitė-Stanynienė, Algirdas Selskis, Loreta Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, Eugenijus Norkus. Fiber-shaped Co modified with Au and Pt crystallites for enhanced hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride. International journal of hydrogen energy. ISSN 0360-3199. 2018, vol. 43, iss. 52, p. 23310-23318.
  9. Edita Palaimienė, Jan Macutkevič, Jūras Banys, Algirdas Selskis, V. Fierro, A.Celzard, S. Schaefer, O. Shenderova. Ultra-low percolation threshold in epoxy resin–onion-like carbon composites. Applied physics letters. ISSN 0003-6951. 2018, vol. 113, iss. 3, art. no. 033105, p. 1-4.
  10. Putinas Kalinauskas, Eugenijus Norkus, Zenius Mockus, Raimondas Giraitis, Remigijus Juškėnas. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical characterization of Cu2SnSe3 thin films deposited on Mo/Glass substrates. Journal of the Electrochemical Society. ISSN 0013-4651. 2019, vol. 166, iss. 5, p. 3107-3111.
  11. A.V.Stanchik, V.F. Gremenok, Remigijus Juškėnas, I.I. Tyukhov, M.S. Tivanov, Ch. Fettkenhauer, V.V. Shvartsman, Raimondas Giraitis, U. Hagemann, D.C. Lupascu. Effects of selenization time and temperature on the growth of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films on a metal substrate for flexible solar cells. Solar energy. ISSN 0038-092X. 2019, vol. 178, p. 142-149.
  12. Jolanta Raudonienė, Ramūnas Skaudžius, Aleksej Žarkov, Algirdas Selskis, Olov Karlsson, Aivaras Kareiva, Edita Garškaitė. Wet-chemistry synthesis of shape-controlled Ag3PO4 crystals and their 3D surface reconstruction from SEM imagery. Powder technology. ISSN 0032-5910. 2019, vol. 345, p. 26-34.
  13. Jurga Juodkazytė, Benjaminas Šebeka, Irena Savickaja, Milda Petrulevičienė, Skirmantė Butkutė, Vitalija Jasulaitienė, Algirdas Selskis, Rimantas Ramanauskas. Electrolytic splitting of saline water: Durable nickel oxide anode for selective oxygen evolution. International journal of hydrogen energy. ISSN 0360-3199. 2019, vol. 44, iss. 12, p. 5929-5939.
  14. Rasuolė Lukošė, Valentina Plaušinaitienė, Milita Vagner, Nerija Žurauskienė, Skirmantas Keršulis, Virgaudas Kubilius, Karolis Motiejuitis, Birutė Knašienė, Voitech Stankevič, Zita Šaltytė, Martynas Skapas, Algirdas Selskis, Evaldas Naujalis. Relation between thickness, crystallite size and magnetoresistance of nanostructured La1−xSrxMnyO3±δ films for magnetic field sensors. Beilstein journal of nanotechnology. ISSN 2190-4286. 2019, vol. 10, p. 256-261.
  15. Anatoly P. Pushkarev, Viacheslav I. Korolev, Daria I. Markina, Filipp E. Komissarenko, Arnas Naujokaitis, Audrius Drabavičius, Vidas Pakštas, Marius Franckevičius, Soslan A. Khubezhov, Denis A. Sannikov, Anton V. Zasedatelev, Pavlos G. Lagoudakis, Anvar A. Zakhidov, Sergey V. Makarov. A few-minute synthesis of CsPbBr3 nanolasers with a high quality factor by spraying at ambient conditions. ACS applied materials & interfaces. ISSN 1944-8244. 2019, vol. 11, iss. 1, p. 1040-1048.
  16. Aušra Baradokė, Jurga Juodkazytė, Ignas Masilionis, Algirdas Selskis, Rasa Pauliukaitė, Ramūnas Valiokas. Combined soft lithographic and electrochemical fabrication of nanostructured platinum microelectrode arrays for miniaturized sensor applications. Microelectronic engineering. ISSN 0167-9317. 2019, vol. 208, p. 39-46.
  17. Svetlana Lichušina, Laurynas Staišiūnas, Vitalija Jasulaitienė, Algirdas Selskis, Konstantinas Leinartas. Capacitive properties, structure, and composition of porous Co hydroxide/oxide layers formed by dealloying of Zn–Co alloy. Journal of applied electrochemistry. ISSN 0021-891X. 2019, vol. 49, iss. 5, p. 503-515.
  18. A.P Pushkarev, V.I. Korolev, D.I. Markina, F.E. Komissarenko, A. Naujokaitis, A. Drabavičius, V. Pakštas, M. Franckevičius, S.A. Khubezhov, D.A. Sannikov, A.V. Zasedatelev, P.G. Lagoudakis, A.A. Zakhidov, S.V. Makarov. A few-minute synthesis of CsPbBr3 nanolasers with a high quality factor by spraying at ambient conditions. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. ISSN 1944-8244. 2019, vol. 11, iss. 1, p. 1040-1048.
  19. M. Franckevičius, V. Pakštas, G. Grincienė, E. Kamarauskas, R. Giraitis, J. Nekrasovas, A. Selskis, R. Juškėnas, G. Niaura. Efficiency improvement of superstrate CZTSSe solar cells processed by spray pyrolysis approach. Solar energy. ISSN 0038-092X. 2019, vol. 185, p. 283-289.
  20. P. Kalinauskas, E. Norkus, Z. Mockus, R. Giraitis, R. Juškėnas. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical characterization of Cu2SnSe3 thin films deposited on Mo/Glass substrates. Journal of the Electrochemical Society. ISSN 0013-4651. 2019, vol. 166, iss. 5, p. 3107-3111.