Department of Characterisation of Materials Structure

Head of department dr. Remigijus JuškėnasEugenijus Norkus
phone +370 5 2648881

  • Mission – to warrant a high international level and competence in the field of characterisation of solids structure and in field of thin films photovoltaics, to qualify high level specialists in these research areas.
  • Objectives – a development of investigations in the field of thin films photovoltaics; to extend a participation in international and Lithuanian scientific projects while performing electron microscopic, x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic investigations.
  • Tasks – to expand investigations of the formation of thin film solar cells; to most effectively apply new equipment for characterisation of structure of solids; to elaborate new techniques for characterisation of structure; to teach young specialists by employing students and graduate students. Open access services on structural analysis and chemical composition of solid materials.

Electron microscopy, x-ray spectroscopy and xrd open access center

  • Development and study of photoactive layers for photovoltaics. Research Council of Lithuania. . Contract number 01.2.2-LMT-K-718. Duration 2014–2020. Head S. Ašmontas 

  • Fast magnetoresistive processes in nanostructured manganite film sensors used for monitoring of electromagnetic forming. Research Council of Lithuania. . Contract number P-MIP-17-470. Duration 2017.03.-2018.11. Head V. Stankevič

  • Bismide nanostructures for mid-infrared devices. Research Council of Lithuania. . Contract number S-MIP-17-25. Duration 2017.10.02-2020.03.31. Head V. Pačebutas,

  • MOCVD growth of III-nitride semiconductors by van der Waals epitaxy on graphene. Research Council of Lithuania. Contract number 01.2.2-LMT-K-718. Duration 2014–2020. Head T.Malinauskas

Services available
  1. XRD investigations of polycrystalline materials:
    1. Qualitative and quantitative phase analysis;
    2. Qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of micro-quantities using polycapillary optics;
    3. XRD examination at a high temperature (from +20 to +1100 °C in vacuum or inert gas atmosphere);
    4. Determination of crystallite size, micro and macro stresses, preferred crystallographic orientation using pole figures;
    5. Investigations of thin films by in-plane technique;
    6. Investigations of epitaxial layers by rocking curves and reciprocal lattice mapping techniques;
    7. Determination of thickness, density and roughness of thin layer and multi-layers by x-ray reflectometry (XRR);
    8. Determination of size distribution of nanoparticles and nanopores by small angle scattering of x-ray (SAXS) in transmission and reflection modes.
  2. Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of powders, minerals, soil, catalysts, ceramics, glass, plastics, metals and alloys using WDXRF, electron microprobe analysis, x-ray photoelectrons and Auger electrons spectroscopy.
  3. Investigations of surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and FE-SEM).
  4. Investigations of cross section using focussed ion beam (FIB) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).
  5. Investigations of internal structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, EDX, EDS).
  6. Surface and metallographic investigations by optic microscopy.
  7. A product testing for fulfilment of RoHS requirements, qualitative and quantitative determination of hazardous materials.

PHI710 (manufacturer - Physical Electronics, USA, 2020) - Auger electrons system with the modern Auger electrons spectrometer, which provides information on the elemental composition and chemical state of elements on the surface of the sample, objects of nanometric size, thin films and their contact surfaces. The Auger spectrometer is most effective in the study of light elements (from Li to Sn). The spectrometer is characterized by high-quality images, formed by Auger electrons, high spatial resolution (8 nm), high sensitivity and spectral resolution.

The spectrometer has a coaxial Schotky-type field emission electron source (accelerating voltage of 1-25 kV) therefore can work in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) mode and is equipped with an X-ray energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS).

For etching the surface of the sample (surface cleaning, depth profiling of chemical composition), a source of argon ions is used, the accelerating voltage of which can vary from 0.02 to 4 kV.

A cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA) forms a shadowless image of objects on a surface.

X-ray spectrometer with X-Max detector (without beryllium window, detector area 50 mm2).


  • Scanning electron microscope – 3 nm
  • Auger electrons – 8 nm

X-ray diffractometer SmartLab (Rigaku, Japan, 2011): 9 kW x-ray tube with rotating Cu anode; Optics for polycrystalline samples: parallel beam/Bragg-Brentano, polycapillary; CALSA – crystal array monochromator of especially high resolution and intensity for diffracted beam (Cu Kα1 for polycrystalline specimens); bent/flat graphite monochromator for diffracted beam;
High resolution optics: Ge monochromators: Ge (220)x2, Ge (220)x4, Ge (400)x2; analysers: Ge (220)x2, Ge (400)x2;
Detectors: scintillation SC-70, 1D (linear) D/teX Ultra, 2D (two dimensional) Pilatus 100K; Sample stages: Eulerian cradle ((Ψ, φ, x, y, z), X-Y (50-50 mm) stage, RxRy stage, stage for powder samples, high temperature stage Anton Paar DHS 1100 (temperatures up to +1100 °C in vacuum or He gas atmosphere);
Vacuumed path for x-rays diffracted at small angles (SAXS);
Special axis for In-plane method;
Powder diffraction database PDF4+ (2017 release).


X-ray diffractometer D8 Advance (Bruker AXS, Germany, 2003 m.): 2,4 kW sealed x-ray tube with Cu anode;
Optics: parallel beam/Bragg-Brentano; V grove Ge monochromator;
Scintillation detector;
Sample stages: Eulerian cradle (Ψ, φ, x, y, z);
Powder diffraction database PDF2 (2003 release).


Fluorescent x-ray spectrometer with wave dispersion (WDXRF) Axios mAX (Panalytical, Netherlands, 2011). 4 kW x-ray tube with Rh anode STmax160;
Detectors: proportional flow, proportional sealed (with Xe gas), highly effective scintillation;
Six crystals-analysers (elements from O to U);
Software: SuperQ – for standard-less quantitative analysis; Ni-Fe-Co – for quantitative analysis of alloys; FP-Multi - for quantitative analysis and determination of thickness of thin films; Pro-Trace - for quantitative analysis of trace elements.


Scanning electron microscope Helios NanoLab 650 (FEI, Netherlands, 2011) with Schottky type field emission electron source, focussed galium ion source – FIB, TEM sample lift-out mechanism Omniprobe 100.7 (Oxford Instruments), platinum deposition and selective carbon mill gas injection systems, cryocleaner and plasma cleaner. X-ray spectrometer INCAEnergy (Oxford Instruments) with X-Max detector. Dedicated for imagining of surface (resolution 0.8 – 0.9 nm), preparation imagining of cross-sections, local chemical analysis.


Scanning electron microscope EVO-50 EP (Carl Zeiss SMT, Germany, 2006) with tungsten and LaB6 electron sources, secondary, VP secondary and backscattered electron detectors, energy and wave dispersion (EDS and WDS) X-Ray spectrometers INCA (Oxford Instruments). Dedicated for imagining of surface, local chemical analysis.


Transmission electron microscope Tecnai G2 F20 X-TWIN (FEI, Netherlands, 2011) with Schottky type field emission electron source. Flexible high tension: 20, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kV. High angle annular dark field (HAADF) detector, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer EDAX with r-TEM detector, 11 MPix ORIUS SC1000B (Gatan) CCD camera, single and double tilt specimen holders, sample plasma cleaner. Resolution (point, line) - (0,25-0,102 nm). Dedicated for studies of internal structure and chemical composition of solid materials and nanostructures.


Carbon and sulphur analyzer CS-2000. Dedicated for precise determination of carbon and sulphur.


Spectrometer of x-ray photoelectrons AXIS Supra+“
(Kratos Analytical, UK, 2019) 

Monochromatic X-ray source with Al/Ag anode to produce X-rays at 1487/2984 eV;

Gas Cluster Ion Source (GCIS, Minibeam 6):

  • Monoatomic Mode – a beam of Ar+ ions of energy 500 eV to 8 keV suitable for sputter depth profiling of inorganic or metallic materials,
  • Cluster Mode – a beam of Arn+ cluster ions is produced at energies up to 20 keV suitable for  the depth profiling of organic and polymeric materials.

Hemispherical analyser (HSA) and spherical mirror analyser (SMA) (elements above Li);

Delay-Line Detector (DLD): scanned spectroscopy, un-scanned snapshot spectroscopy and 2D imaging modes.

Heat and cool accessories allow samples mounted on a heat/cool sample holder to be heated up to +800 °C or cooled to <-100 °C before or during the measurement.

The charge neutraliser provides a source of low energy electrons to neutralise positive charge built up on the insulator sample surface.

Ion Scattering Spectrometry (ISS) – extremely surface sensitive technique, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) – designed for valence band acquisition and electronic workfunction measurement.

The air sensitive transporter allows to  transfer samples that are sensitive to atmospheric contamination or reaction from a clean area.


Equipment for sample preparation:

  • Pulverisette 6 (FRITSCH, Germany) - the ball grinding-mill for a preparation of powder samples (salts, soil, ceramics, minerals) for WD-XRF and XRD measurements. Volume of tungsten carbide bowl 80 ml, 5 balls of tungsten carbide;

  • TP-20 (Herzog, Germany) Hydraulic press for the formation powder samples in the form of tablet (Φ37, Φ20 and Φ10  mm);

  • Eagon 2 (Panalytical, Netherlands, 2011) - fully automated fusion furnace for fused bead sample preparation (Φ27 mm) for fluorescent x-ray spectrometer Axios mAX;

  • Tegramin-25 (Stuers, Denmark) – fully automated system for sample preparation by surface polishing.

Most important publications
  1. Daublytė, Edita; Zdaniauskienė, Agnė; Talaikis, Martynas; Drabavičius, Audrius; Charkova, Tatjana.  A facile microwave-assisted synthesis of Ag@SiO2nanoparticles for Raman spectroscopy. New journal of chemistry. ISSN 1144-0546. 2021, vol. 45, iss. 24, p. 10952-10958.

  2. Jablonskienė, Jolita; Šimkūnaitė, Dijana; Vaičiūnienė, Jūratė; Stalnionis, Giedrius; Drabavičius, Audrius; Jasulaitienė, Vitalija; Pakštas, Vidas; Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, Loreta; Norkus, Eugenijus. Synthesis of carbon-supported MnO2 nanocomposites for supercapacitors application. Crystals. eISSN 2073-4352. 2021, vol. 11, no. 7, art. no. 784, p. 1-14.
  3. Kavaliauskaitė, Gabrielė; Kuksėnaitė, Gintarė; Gegevičius, Rokas; Pakštas, Vidas; Selskis, Algirdas; Strazdienė, Viktorija; Padarauskas, Audrius; Orentas, Edvinas; Gulbinas, Vidmantas; Franckevičius, Marius. S-methylthiouronium improves the photostability of methylammonium lead iodide perovskites. ACS applied energy materials. ISSN 2574-0962. 2021, vol. 4, iss. 7, p. 6466-6473.
  4. Stankevičius, Evaldas; Vilkevičius, Kernius; Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Bužavaitė-Vertelienė, Ernesta; Selskis, Algirdas; Balevičius, Zigmas. Direct laser writing for the formation of large-scale gold microbumps arrays generating hybrid lattice plasmon polaritons in Vis–NIR range. Advanced optical materials. ISSN 2195-1071. 2021, vol. 9, iss. 12, art. no. 2100027, p. 1-10.
  5. Pakalniškis, Andrius; Skaudžius, Ramūnas; Zhaludkevich, D.V.; Zhaludkevich, A.L.; Alikin, Denis. O.; Abramov, A.S.; Murauskas, Tomas; Shur, V.Ya.; Dronov, A.A.; Silibin, M.V.; Selskis, Algirdas; Ramanauskas, Rimantas; Lukowiak, Anna; Strek, W.; Karpinsky, Dmitry V.; Kareiva, Aivaras. Morphotropic phase boundary in Sm-substituted BiFeO3 ceramics: Local vs microscopic approaches. Journal of alloys and compounds. ISSN 0925-8388. 2021, vol. 875, art. no. 159994, p. 1-8.
  6. Sytchkova, Anna; Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Volosevičienė, Lina; Juškėnas, Remigijus; Simniškis, Rimantas. Optical, structural and electrical properties of sputtered ultrathin chromium films. Optical materials. ISSN 0925-3467. 2021, vol. 121, art. no. 111530, p. 1-9.
  7. Devenson, Jan; Norkus, Ričardas; Juškėnas, Remigijus; Krotkus, Arūnas. Terahertz emission from ultrathin bismuth layers. Optics letters. ISSN 0146-9592. 2021, vol. 46, no. 15, p. 3681-3684.
  8. Tutlienė, Skirmantė; Petrulevičienė, Milda; Pilipavičius, Jurgis; Žarkov, Aleksej; Selskis, Algirdas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Juodkazytė, Jurga; Vilčiauskas, Linas. Electrochemical performance of sol-gel synthesized NaTi2(PO4)3- carbon composites as aqueous Na-ion battery anodes. Journal of the electrochemical society. ISSN 0013-4651. 2021, vol. 168, iss. 6, art. no. 060545, p. 1-11.
  9. Badokas, Kazimieras; Kadys, Arūnas; Mickevičius, Jūras; Ignatjev, Ilja; Skapas, Martynas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Radiunas, Edvinas; Juška, Giedrius; Malinauskas, Tadas. Remote epitaxy of GaN via graphene on GaN/sapphire templates. Journal of physics D: applied physics. ISSN 0022-3727. 2021, vol. 54, iss. 20, art. no. 205103, p. 1-8.
  10. Ščajev, Patrik; Durena, Ramona; Onufrijevs, Pavels; Miasojedovas, Saulius; Malinauskas, Tadas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Žarkov, Aleksej; Zukuls, Anzelms; Bite, Ivita; Smits, Krisjanis. Morphological and optical property study of Li doped ZnO produced by microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis. Materials science in semiconductor processing. ISSN 1369-8001. 2021, vol. 135, art. no. 106069, p. 1-8.
  11. Nevinskas, Ignas; Mockus, Zenius; Juškėnas, Remigijus; Norkus, Ričardas; Selskis, Algirdas; Norkus, Eugenijus; Krotkus, Arūnas. Terahertz photoconductivity spectra of electrodeposited Thin Bi films. Materials. ISSN 1996-1944. 2021, vol. 14, iss. 12, art. no. 3150, p. 1-9.
  12. Ramanavičius, Simonas; Bittencourt, Carla; Naujokaitis, Arnas; Pakštas, Vidas; Jagminas, Arūnas. Interfacing perovskite strontium molybdate to molybdenum disulfide nanoplatelts for boosting HER from water. International journal of hydrogen energy. ISSN 0360-3199. 2021, vol. 46, p. 14359-14368.
  13. Balčiūnaitė, Aldona; Sukackienė, Zita; Antanavičiūtė, Kornelija; Vaičiūnienė, Jūratė; Naujokaitis, Arnas; Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, Loreta; Norkus, Eugenijus. Investigation of hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride using different cobalt catalysts. International journal of hydrogen energy. ISSN 0360-3199. 2021, vol. 46, iss. 2, p. 1989-1996.
  14. Plyushch, Artyom; Macutkevič, Jan; Sokal, Aliaksei; Lapko, Konstantin; Kudlash, Alexander; Adamchuk, Dmitry; Ksenevich, Vitaly; Bychanok, Dzmitry; Selskis, Algirdas; Kuzhir, Polina; Banys, Jūras. The phosphate-based composite materials filled with nano-sized BaTiO3 and Fe3O4:toward the unfired multiferroic materials. Materials. ISSN 1996-1944. 2021, vol. 14, iss. 1, art. no. 133, p. 1-8.
  15. Stagniūnaitė, Raminta; Kepenienė, Virginija; Balčiūnaitė, Aldona; Drabavičius, Audrius; Pakštas, Vidas; Jasulaitienė, Vitalija; Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, Loreta; Norkus, Eugenijus. An electrocatalytic activity of AuCeO2/carbon catalyst in fuel cell reactions: oxidation of borohydride and reduction of oxygen. Catalysts. ISSN 2073-4344. 2021, vol. 11, iss. 3, art. no. 342, p. 1-15.
  16. Ašmontas, Steponas; Čerškus, Aurimas; Gradauskas, Jonas; Grigucevičienė, Asta; Leinartas, Konstantinas; Lučun, Andžej; Petrauskas, Kazimieras; Selskis, Algirdas; Sužiedėlis, Algirdas; Širmulis, Edmundas; Juškėnas, Remigijus. Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells. Coatings. eISSN 2079-6412. 2021, vol. 11, iss. 3, art. no. 279, p. 1-12.
  17. Meisak, Darya; Macutkevič, Jan; Selskis, Algirdas; Kuzhir, Polina; Banys, Jūras. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and synergy effects in epoxy/MWCNT/Ni@C composites. Nanomaterials. eISSN 2079-4991. 2021, vol. 11, iss. 2, art. no. 555, p. 1-16.
  18. Kirdeikienė, Aliona; Girčienė, Olga; Gudavičiūtė, Laima; Jasulaitienė, Vitalija; Selskis, Algirdas; Tutlienė, Skirmantė; Skruodienė, Monika; Pilipavičius, Jurgis; Juodkazytė, Jurga; Ramanauskas, Rimantas. Self-healing properties of cerium-modified molybdate conversion coating on steel. Coatings. ISSN 2079-6412. 2021, vol. 11, iss. 2, art. no. 194, p. 1-15.
  19. Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, Loreta; Dordi, Yezdi; Norkus, Eugenijus; Stankevičienė, Ina; Jagminienė, Aldona; Naujokaitis, Arnas; Tumonis, Liudas; Buzas, Vytenis; Maciulis, Laurynas. Electroless platinum deposition using Co3+/Co2+ redox couple as a reducing agent. Materials. ISSN 1996-1944. 2021, vol. 14, iss. 8, art. no. 1893, p. 1-11.
  20. Wang, Chong; Lu, Shuaicheng; Li, Sen; Wang, Siyu; Lin, Xuetian; Zhang, Jun; Kondrotas, Rokas; Li, Kanghua; Chen, Chao; Tang, Jiang. Efficiency improvement of flexible Sb2Se3 solar cells with non-toxic buffer layer via interface engineering. Nano energy. ISSN 2211-2855. 2020, vol. 71, art. no. 104577, p. 1-11.
  21. Palaimienė, Edita; Schaefer, Sebastien; Macutkevič, Jan; Banys, Jūras; Selskis, Algirdas; Fierro, Vanessa; Alain, Celzard. Electrical percolation and electromagnetic properties of polydimethylsiloxane composites filled with Ag nanoparticles of different sizes. Polymer composites. ISSN 0272-8397. 2020, vol. 41, vol. 11, p. 4750-4756.
  22. Ščajev, Patrik; Soriūtė, Vaiva; Kreiza, Gediminas; Malinauskas, Tadas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Onufrijevs, Pavels; Medvids, Arturs; Cheng, Hung-Hsiang. Temperature dependent carrier lifetime, diffusion coefficient, and diffusion length in Ge0.95Sn0.05 epilayer. Journal of applied physics. ISSN 0021-8979. 2020, vol. 128, no. 11, art. no. 115103, p. 1-8.
  23. Reklaitis, Ignas; Radiunas, Edvinas; Malinauskas, Tadas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Juška, Gytis; Ritasalo, R.; Pilvi, T.; Taeger, S.; Strassburg, M., R.Tomašiūnas. A comparative study on atomic layer deposited oxide film morphology and their electrical breakdown. Surface & coatings technology. ISSN 0257-8972. 2020, vol. 399, art. no. 126123, p. 1-15.
  24. Meisak, Darya; Macutkevič, Jan; Plyushch, Artyom; Polina, Kuzhir; Selskis, Algirdas; Banys, Jūras. Dielectric relaxation in hybrid epoxy/MWCNT/MnFe2O4 composites. Polymers. eISSN 2073-4360. 2020, vol. 12, iss. 3, art. no. 697, p. 1-13.
  25. Balčiūnaitė, Aldona; Sukackienė, Zita; Antanavičiūtė, Kornelija; Vaičiūnienė, Jūratė; Naujokaitis, Arnas; Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, Loreta; Norkus, Eugenijus. Investigation of hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride using different cobalt catalysts. International journal of hydrogen energy. ISSN 0360-3199. 2021, vol. 46, iss. 2, p. 1989-1996.
  26. Plyushch, Artyom; Macutkevič, Jan; Sokal, Aliaksei; Lapko, Konstantin; Kudlash, Alexander; Adamchuk, Dmitry; Ksenevich, Vitaly; Bychanok, Dzmitry; Selskis, Algirdas; Kuzhir, Polina; Banys, Jūras. The phosphate-based composite materials filled with nano-sized BaTiO3 and Fe3O4:toward the unfired multiferroic materials. Materials. ISSN 1996-1944. 2021, vol. 14, iss. 1, art. no. 133, p. 1-8.
  27. Kepenienė, Virginija; Stagniūnaitė, Raminta; Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, Loreta; Pakštas, Vidas; Jasulaitienė, Vitalija; Léger, B.; Rousseau, J.; Ponchel, A.; Monflier, E.; Norkus, Eugenijus. Co3O4/C and Au supported Co3O4/C nanocomposites – Peculiarities of fabrication and application towards oxygen reduction reaction. Materials chemistry and physics. ISSN 0254-0584. 2020,vol. 241, art. no. 122332, p. 1-11.
  28. Zabielaitė, Aušrinė; Balčiūnaitė, Aldona; Šimkūnaitė, Dijana; Lichušina, Svetlana; Stalnionienė, Irena; Šimkūnaitė-Stanynienė, Birutė; Naruškevičius, Leonas; Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, Loreta; Norkus, Eugenijus; Selskis, Algirdas; Pakštas, Vidas. High performance direct N2H4-H2O2 fuel cell using fiber-shaped Co decorated with Pt crystallites as anode electrocatalysts. Journal of the electrochemical society. ISSN 0013-4651. 2020, vol. 167, iss. 5, art. no. 054502, p. 1-9.
  29. Vagner, Milita; Plaušinaitienė, Valentina; Lukose, Rasuole; Keršulis, Skirmantas; Talaikis, Martynas; Knašienė, Birutė; Stanionytė, Sandra; Kubilius, Virgaudas; Motiejuitis, Karolis; Šaltytė, Zita; Niaura, Gediminas; Naujalis, Evaldas; Žurauskienė, Nerija. PI-MOCVD technology of (La, Sr)(Mn, Co)O3: From epitaxial to nanostructured films. Surface and coatings technology. ISSN 0257-8972. 2020, vol. 385, art. no. 125287, p. 1-8.
  30. Drabavičius, Audrius; Naujokaitis, Arnas; Stalnionis, Giedrius; Giraitis, Raimondas; Mockus, Zenius; Kanapeckaitė, Stasė; Kalinauskas, Putinas; Nedzinskas, Ramūnas; Niaura, Gediminas; Juškėnas, Remigijus. Photoelectrochemical, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and photoluminescence study of disorder in electrochemically deposited kesterite thin film. Journal of alloys and compounds. ISSN 0925-8388. 2020, vol. 824, art. no. 153853, p. 1-9.
  31. Paulauskas, Tadas; Pačebutas, Vaidas; Geižutis, Andrejus; Stanionytė, Sandra;Dudutienė, Evelina; Skapas, Martynas; Naujokaitis, Arnas; Strazdienė, Viktorija; Čechavičius, Bronislovas; Čaplovičová, Mária; Vretenár, Viliam; Jakieła, Rafał; Krotkus, Arūnas. GaAs1-xBix growth on Ge: anti-phase domains, ordering, and exciton localization. Scientific reports. eISSN 2045-2322. 2020, vol. 10, art. no. 2002, p. 1-12.
  32. Kalinauskas, Putinas; Norkus, Eugenijus; Mockus, Zenius; Giraitis, Raimondas; Stalnionis, Giedrius; Jasulaitienė, Vitalija; Juškėnas, Remigijus. The influence of removal of secondary phases and dissolution by-product from the surface of Cu2ZnSnS4 film on the photoelectrochemical response of this film. Journal of the electrochemical society. ISSN 0013-4651. 2020, vol. 167, iss. 2, art. no. 026513, p. 1-6.
  33. Stanchik, A.V.; Tivanov, M.S.; Tyukhov, I.I.; Juškėnas, Remigijus; Korolik, O.V.; Gremenok, V.F.; Saad, A.M.; Naujokaitis, Arnas. Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in the Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films on a Ta foil substrate. Solar energy. ISSN 0038-092X. 2020, vol. 201, p. 480-488.
  34. Onufrijevs, Pavels; Ščajev, Patrik; Medvids, Arturs; Andrulevicius, Mindaugas; Nargelas, Saulius; Malinauskas, Tadas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Skapas, Martynas; Grase, Liga; Pludons, Arturs; Oehme, Michael; Lyutovich, Klara; Kasper, Erich; Schulze, Joerg; Cheng, Hung Hsiang. Direct-indirect GeSn band structure formation by laser radiation: the enhancement of Sn solubility in Ge. Optics and Laser Technology. ISSN 0030-3992. 2020, vol. 128, art. no. 106200, p. 1-7.
  35. Matijošius, Tadas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas; Čebatariūnienė, Alina; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Staišiūnas, Laurynas; Stalnionis, Giedrius; Ručinskienė, Alma; Asadauskas, Svajus. Friction reduction using Nanothin Titanium layers on anodized aluminum as potential bioceramic material. Ceramics international. ISSN 0272-8842. 2020, vol. 46, iss. 10, pt. A, p. 15581-15593.
  36. Šimoliūnienė, Monika; Truncaitė, Lidija; Petrauskaitė, Emilija; Zajančkauskaitė, Aurelija; Meškys, Rolandas; Skapas, Martynas; Kaupinis, Algirdas; Valius, Mindaugas; Šimoliūnas, Eugenijus. Pantoea agglomerans-infecting bacteriophage vB_PagS_AAS21: A cold-adapted virus representing a novel genus within the family Siphoviridae. Viruses. ISSN 1999-4915. 2020, vol. 12, iss. 4, art. no. 479, p. 1-8.
  37. Paulauskas, Tadas; Pačebutas, Vaidas; Butkutė, Renata; Čechavičius, Bronislovas; Naujokaitis, Arnas; Kamarauskas, Mindaugas; Skapas, Martynas; Devenson, Jan; Čaplovičová, Mária; Vretenár, Viliam; Li, Xiaoyan; Kociak, Mathieu; Krotkus, Arūnas. Atomic-resolution EDX, HAADF, and EELS study of GaAs1-xBix alloys. Nanoscale Research Letters. ISSN 1931-7573. 2020, vol. 15, art. no. 121, p. 1-12.
  38. Juodkazytė, Jurga; Petrulevičienė, Milda; Parvin, Maliha; Šebeka, Benjaminas; Savickaja, Irena; Pakštas, Vidas; Naujokaitis, Arnas; Virkutis, Jonas; Gegeckas, Audrius. Activity of sol-gel derived nanocrystalline WO3 films in photoelectrochemical generation of reactive chlorine species. Journal of electroanalytical chemistry. ISSN 1572-6657. 2020, vol. 871, art. no. 114277, p. 1-9.
  39. Staišiūnas, Laurynas; Leinartas, Konstantinas; Juzeliūnas, Eimutis; Bučinskienė, Dalia; Grigucevičienė, Asta; Kalinauskas, Putinas; Selskis, Algirdas; Stanionytė, Sandra. Anticorrosion performance of hafnium oxide ultrathin films on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Surface and coatings technology.ISSN 0257-8972. 2020, vol. 397, art. no. 126046, p. 1-9.
  40. Pačebutas, Vaidas; Norkus, Ričardas; Karpus, Vytautas; Geižutis, Andrejus; Strazdienė, Viktorija; Stanionytė, Sandra; Krotkus, Arūnas. Band-offsets of GaInAsBi–InP heterojunctions. Infrared physics & technology. ISSN 1350-4495. 2020, vol. 109, art. no. 103400, p. 1-4.
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