Department of Physical Technologies

Head of department dr.(hp) Arūnas Šetkus dr.(hp) A. Šetkus

phone +370 5 2627934
Department focuses on the development and applications of autonomous integrated sensor systems. Each laboratory of the department is 
responsible for individual parts of the system. Our technologies are based on electrochemical, sol-gel processes, thin film and 2D like materials deposition by PVD, CVD and PECVD, wet transfer of 2D materials and laser lithography. Materials we work with: nanocrystalline and/or porous semiconductors such as Si and metal oxides, 2D materials (graphene, MoS2) and hybrid materials (biomolecules-solids).




Department‘s equipment is a part of open access centre “Prototype Formation and Integration”.

Microwave research equipment

In the microwave laboratory there are microwave anechoic chamber designed for measurements in the frequency range from 800 MHz to 20 GHz. The dimensions of the chamber are 8.4 m×4.6 m×3.7 m. Our chamber partly conforms to IEC EN 61000-4-3 standard for electromagnetic emission measurements and fully conforms to requirements for the measurement of electronic equipment susceptibility to electromagnetic radiation.


Available in the lab high power microwave pulse sources generate up to 100 kW (up to 20 kV/m) microwave pulses in the frequencies 2.65 GHz, 5.7 GHz, 9.2 GHz and 15 GHz. Also we have a set of tunable microwave amplifiers those generate up to 2 kW power microwave pulses in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 18 GHz.


In our new anechoic chamber we can perform measurements of electromagnetic properties like dielectric permittivity, absorption, shielding effectiveness of various functional materials and coatings at free space conditions.





Development of resistive sensors – devices for high power microwave pulse measurements - is one of the objectives of our laboratory. Resistive sensors are based on electron heating effect. Electric field of microwave signal getting into sensor heats electrons in it and the resistance of the sensor increases. By measuring this resistance change the microwave pulse power in the waveguide is determined. New generation of the resistive sensors is implemented in the double ridge waveguides and their frequency band was expanded more than two times.


Using high power microwave pulse sources and resistive sensors we can perform measurements of electromagnetic susceptibility of the electronic equipment to high power microwave radiation. The main advantage of our technique is based on the increased measurement accuracy of the amplitude of the electric field by which the device under test is subjected. On the one hand, we are using the resistive sensor for the exact measurement of the microwave power passed to the transmitting antenna, being able to calculate the electric field strength at the location of the device under test. On the other hand, electric field strength is measured directly by using the resistive sensor connected to the horn antenna.


Together with experimental investigations we are also solving electromagnetic wave scattering problems. Using finite difference time domain method the electromagnetic wave propagation in various environments and their interaction with different objects are modelled. We are also performing the simulations of electromagnetic properties of microwave and terahertz electronic components.

Thin film deposition

PVD platform Angstrom Engineering EvoVac
Platform is used for deposition of metal oxide thin films and metals by RF, DC, pulsed DC and HiPIMS sputtering. Argon and/or oxygen ion beam processing can be used for cleaning and film enhancements.


Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) system SVCS
PECVD system consist of two furnaces with maximal temperature up to 1000 0C and is used for formation of graphene and SiNx, SiO2, Al2O3, SiC layers


Thermal processes
Tube furnace Nabertherm RS 120/1000/11 (photo) is used for diffusion and thermal oxidation of silicon. Sulfidation of Mo/MoOx precursor into a few monolayer MoS2 can be performed in this furnace. Maximal temperature in the tube is 1100 0C in oxygen, dry air or inert gas atmosphere. Drying chamber BINDER FDL 115 is used for drying various solvents. Rapid thermal processing system Unitemp RTP-100-HV can be used for rapid thermal annealing of thin films.



Laboratory of chemical processes
Laboratory is in ISO 7 cleanroom equipped with fume hoods, laminar flow hoods used for preparation of the surface of semiconductor wafers, spin coating of the films and wet etching. 


Device prototyping

Laser lithography system Heidelberg instruments DWL 66+
The DWL 66+ laser lithography system is a high resolution pattern generator for low volume mask making and direct writing. Generated structure size is down to 600 nm.


Optical microscope
High quality optical microscope (magnification up to 1600x) for alignment to lithographic markers on the wafer and visual control of lithography process.


Mask aligners 
Mask aligners Karl Suss MJB3 and Kulicke-Soffa with alignment accuracy of 1.5 µm.


Assembly equipment
Diamond scriber OptoPhase mr200 for scribing wide range of materials from semiconductors (Si, GaAs, GaSb, InP, GaP) to glass and quartz. Semi-automatic digital wedge/ball/bump bonder TPT-HB10 for bonding Au and Al wires.

 Test and Diagnostic Equipment  

Semiconductor characterization system Keithley 4200-SCS/Summit 11000 is aparameter analyser, and it delivers synchronizing current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) and ultra-fast pulsed I-V measurements in a temperature range from room temperature to +350 0C. 


Scanning Probe Microscope Dimension 3100
Microscope is used for a mapping surface 3D topography, mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties, manipulating of nanoobjects on the surface, investigate effects of electric field or mechanical force to the surface, perform force (intermolecular, electrical etc.) spectroscopy. Measurements can be performed in air or liquid at room temperature.


Photoelectrical characterisation system
A steady state solar simulator Sciencetech SS1,6kW (AM1.5G spectrum) and source meter Keithley 2601 for photoelectrical characterisation of solar cells or photoactive materials.



SPIP 5.1.0 (Image Metrology) is an advanced software package for processing and analyzing microscopy images at nano- and microscale. SPIP supports many microscope types including scanning probe microscopes (SPM, AFM, STM, SNOM), electron microscopes (SEM, TEM), interference microscopes, confocal microscopes, optical microscopes and profilers along with their file formats.

  • “Graphene supercapacitor powered FET all carbon circuit for sensing applications“, Research Council of Lithuania. 2016 – 2018. Head G. Astromskas.
    An all carbon circuit with graphene-based composite consisting of supercapacitors, powering graphene FET to amplify electrochemical sensor signal is developed in the G-SUPERCAP project. Five research teams with different backgrounds (chemical synthesis, electrochemistry, ultrashort pulse laser, semiconductor devices and spectroscopic analysis) are working interdisciplinary to develop and integrate graphene based devices (supercapacitor, FET and sensor) into a single circtuit, thus demonstrating the all carbon electronics.
  • “Nanotunnel matrix with high pn juncton surface area for silicon photovoltaic devices formation and investigation”, Research Council of Lithuania. 2015 – 2018. Head J. Visniakov.
    The purpose of this project is nanotunnel matrix with high surface area pn junction formation and investigation. Chemical/electrochemical etching will be applied for the nanotunnel matrix with controllable structure and optical properties on the n‐type silicon substrate formation. High surface area pn junction in the matrix will be formed by boron diffusion from sol‐gel method deposited borosilicate glass. Influence of the matrix formation induced surface defects and the matrix structure on the diffusion process will be investigated. Electrical contacts will be deposited by chemical/electrochemical plating method. The influence of the various contact configurations on the properties of the photovoltaic devices with formed matrix will be investigated by using laser lithography method. PECVD and chemical oxidation will be used to form passivating layers. Such layers will be investigated in the means of their structure and influence to the passivated surfaces.
Most important publications
  1. Kavaliauskaitė, Gabrielė; Kuksėnaitė, Gintarė; Gegevičius, Rokas; Pakštas, Vidas; Selskis, Algirdas; Strazdienė, Viktorija; Padarauskas, Audrius; Orentas, Edvinas; Gulbinas, Vidmantas; Franckevičius, Marius. S-methylthiouronium improves the photostability of methylammonium lead iodide perovskites . ACS applied energy materials. ISSN 2574-0962. 2021, vol. 4, iss. 7, p. 6466-6473.

  2. Sytchkova, Anna; Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Volosevičienė, Lina; Juškėnas, Remigijus; Simniškis, Rimantas. Optical, structural and electrical properties of sputtered ultrathin chromium films. Optical materials. ISSN 0925-3467. 2021, vol. 121, art. no. 111530, p. 1-9.
  3. Rubežienė, Vitalija; Baltušnikaitė-Guzaitienė, Julija; Abraitienė, Aušra; Sankauskaitė, Audronė; Ragulis, Paulius; Santos, Gilda; Pimenta, Juana. Development and investigation of PEDOT:PSS composition coated fabrics intended for microwave shielding and absorption. Polymers. ISSN 2073-4360. 2021, vol. 13, iss. 8, art. no. 1191, p. 1-21.
  4. Agafonov, Vladimir; Nargelienė, Viktorija; Balakauskas, Saulius; Bukauskas, Virginijus; Kamarauskas, Mindaugas; Lukša, Algimantas; Mironas, Audružis; Rėza, Alfonsas; Šetkus, Arūnas. Single variable defined technology control of the optical properties in MoS2 films with controlled number of 2D-layers. Nanotechnology. ISSN 0957-4484. 2020, vol. 31, iss. 2, art. no. 025602, p. 1-12.
  5. Šlekas, Gediminas; Kancleris, Žilvinas Andrius; Urbanovič, Andžej; Čiegis, Raimondas. Comparison of full-wave models of terahertz photoconductive antenna based on ordinary differential equation and Monte Carlo method. European physical journal plus. ISSN 2190-5444. 2020, vol. 135, art. no. 85, p. 1-16.
  6. Paulauskas, Tadas; Pačebutas, Vaidas; Butkutė, Renata; Čechavičius, Bronislovas; Naujokaitis, Arnas; Kamarauskas, Mindaugas; Skapas, Martynas; Devenson, Jan; Čaplovičová, Mária; Vretenár, Viliam; Li, Xiaoyan; Kociak, Mathieu; Krotkus, Arūnas. Atomic-resolution EDX, HAADF, and EELS study of GaAs1-xBix alloys. Nanoscale Research Letters. ISSN 1931-7573. 2020, vol. 15, art. no. 121, p. 1-12.
  7. Pačebutas, Vaidas; Norkus, Ričardas; Karpus, Vytautas; Geižutis, Andrejus; Strazdienė, Viktorija; Stanionytė, Sandra; Krotkus, Arūnas. Band-offsets of GaInAsBi–InP heterojunctions. Infrared physics & technology. ISSN 1350-4495. 2020, vol. 109, art. no. 103400, p. 1-4.
  8. Rudzikas, Matas; Šetkus, Arūnas; Stange, Marit; Ulbikas, Juras; Ulyashin, Alexander. Simple interference based colorization of Si based solar cells and panels with ITO/SiNx:H double layer antireflective coatings. Solar energy. ISSN 0038-092X. 2020, vol. 207, p. 218-227.
  9. Kamarauskas, Mindaugas; Agafonov, Vladimir; Daugalas, Tomas; Balakauskas, Saulius; Mironas, Audružis; Nedzinskas, Ramūnas; Niaura, Gediminas; Treideris, Marius; Šetkus, Arūnas. Photovoltaic effect-driven IR response of heterojunctions obtained by direct CVD synthesis of MoS2 nanolayers on crystalline silicon. Nanotechnology. ISSN 0957-4484. 2020, vol. 31, iss. 42, art. no. 425603, p. 1-12.
  10. Gradauskas, Jonas; Ašmontas, Steponas; Sužiedėlis, Algirdas; Šilėnas, Aldis; Vaičikauskas, Viktoras; Čerškus, Aurimas; Širmulis, Edmundas; Žalys, Ovidijus Alfonsas; Masalskyi, Oleksandr. Influence of hot carrier and thermal components on photovoltage formation across the p–n junction. Applied sciences. ISSN 2076-3417. 2020, vol. 10, iss. 21, art. no. 7483, p. 1-8.
  11. Paulauskas, Tadas; Čechavičius, Bronislovas; Karpus, Vytautas; Jočionis, Lukas; Tumėnas, Saulius; Devenson, Jan; Pačebutas, Vaidas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Strazdienė, Viktorija; Geižutis, Andrejus; Čaplovičová, Mária; Vretenár, Viliam; Walls, Michael; Krotkus, Arūnas. Polarization dependent photoluminescence and optical anisotropy in CuPtB-ordered dilute GaAs1–xBix alloys. Journal of applied physics. ISSN 0021-8979.2020, vol. 128, iss. 19, art. no. 195106, p. 1-10.
  12. Seliuta, Dalius; Šlekas, Gediminas; Valušis, Gintaras; Kancleris, Žilvinas Andrius. Fano resonance arising due to direct interaction of plasmonic and lattice modes in a mirrored array of split ring resonators. Optics letters. ISSN 0146-9592. 2019, vol. 44, iss. 4, p. 759-762.
  13. Matijošius, Tadas; Asadauskas, Svajus; Bikulčius, Gedvidas; Selskis, Algirdas; Jankauskas, Sigitas; Višniakov, Jevgenij; Ignatjev, Ilja. Determination of the dye penetration rate in porous aluminum oxide using Raman spectroscopy. Coloration technology. ISSN 1472-3581. 2019, vol. 135, iss. 4, p. 275-282.
  14. Matijošius, Tadas; Asadauskas, Svajus; Bikulčius, Gedvidas; Selskis, Algirdas; Jankauskas, Sigitas; Višniakov, Jevgenij; Ignatjev, Ilja. Determination of the dye penetration rate in porous aluminum oxide using Raman spectroscopy. Coloration technology. ISSN 1472-3581. 2019, vol. 135, iss. 4, p. 275-282.
  15. Kirsnytė, Monika; Jurkūnas, Marijus; Kancleris, Žilvinas Andrius; Ragulis, Paulius; Simniškis, Rimantas; Vareikis, Aušvydas; Abraitienė, Aušra; Požela, Karolis; Whiteside, Ben; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina L., Arūnas Stirkė. Investigation of in situ formed conductive polymer composite in adhesive matrix. Synthetic metals. ISSN 0379-6779. 2019, vol. 258, art. no. 116181, p. 1-9.
  16. Andrius Paulauskas, Algirdas Selskis, Virginijus Bukauskas, Viktoras Vaičikauskas, Arūnas Ramanavičius, Zigmas Balevičius. Real time study of amalgam formation and mercury adsorption on thin gold film by total internal reflection ellipsometry. Applied surface science. ISSN 0169-4332. 2018, vol. 427, p. 298-303.
  17. Vitalija Rubežienė, Aušra Abraitienė, Julija Baltušnikaitė-Guzaitienė, Sandra Varnaitė-Žuravliova, Audronė Sankauskaitė, Žilvinas Andrius Kancleris, Paulius Ragulis, Gediminas Šlekas. The influence of distribution and deposit of conductive coating on shielding effectiveness of textiles. Journal of the Textile institute. ISSN 0040-5000. 2018, vol. 109, iss. 3, p. 358-367.
  18. Alfonsas Rėza, Andrius Maneikis, Arūnas Šetkus, Audružis Mironas, Marius Treideris, Mindaugas Kamarauskas, Viktorija Strazdienė, Virginijus Bukauskas. Minimization of optical reflectance by copper assisted etching of crystalline silicon surface. Physica status solidi A - Applications and materials science. ISSN 1862-6300. eISSN 1862-6319. 2018, vol. 215, iss. 6, art. no. 1700600 p.1-9.
  19. Sandra Stanionytė, Vaidas Pačebutas, Bronislovas Čechavičius, Andrius Bičiūnas, Andrejus Geižutis, Virginijus Bukauskas, Renata Butkutė, Arūnas Krotkus. Impact of thermal treatments on epitaxial GayIn1−yAs1−xBi x layers luminescent properties. Journal of materials science. ISSN 0022-2461. 2018, vol. 53, iss. 11, p. 8339-8346.
  20. Andrius Sakavičius, Gvidas Astromskas, Algimantas Lukša, Virginijus Bukauskas, Viktorija Nargelienė, Ieva Matulaitienė, Arūnas Šetkus. Annealing time effect on metal graphene contact properties. ECS journal of solid state science and technology. ISSN 2162-8769. 2018, vol. 7, iss. 5, p. 77-81.
  21. Rokas Gegevičius, Marius Treideris, Vidas Pakštas, Marius Franckevičius, Vidmantas Gulbinas. Oxide layer enhances photocurrent gain of the planar MAPbI3 photodetector. Advanced electronic materials. ISSN 2199-160X. 2018, vol.4, iss. 7, art. no. 1800114, p. 1-7.
  22. Gaidukevič Justina, Pauliukaitė Rasa, Niaura Gediminas, Matulaitienė Ieva, Opuchovič Olga, Radzevič Aneta, Astromskas Gvidas, Bukauskas Virginijus, Barkauskas Jurgis. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide with adjustable microstructure using regioselective reduction in the melt of boric acid: relationship between structural properties and electrochemical performance. Nanomaterials. ISSN 2079-4991. 2018, vol. 8, no. 11, art. no. 889, p. 1-17.
  23. Minkevičius Linas, Tamošiūnas Vincas, Kojelis Martynas, Žąsinas Ernestas, Bukauskas Virginijus, Šetkus Arūnas, Butkutė Renata, Kašalynas Irmantas, Valušis Gintaras. Influence of field effects on the performance of InGaAs-based terahertz radiation detectors. Journal of infrared, millimeter and terahertz waves. ISSN 1866-6892. vol. 38, iss.6 (2017), p. 689-707.
  24. Jevgenij Višniakov, Andrius Janulevičius, Andrius Maneikis, Ieva Matulaitienė, Algirdas Selskis, Sandra Stanionytė, Artūras Suchodolskis. Antireflection TiO2 coatings on textured surface grown by HiPIMS. Thin solid films. ISSN 0040-6090. vol. 628 (2017), p. 190-195.
  25. Gediminas Šlekas, Paulius Ragulis, Dalius Seliuta, Žilvinas Andrius Kancleris. Using of generalized Goertzel algorithm for FDTD calculation of the transmission and reflection spectra of periodic structures. IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility. ISSN 0018-9375. vol. 59, no.6 (2017), p. 2038-2041.
  26. Ragulis Paulius, Ängskog Per, Simniškis Rimantas, Vallhagen Bengt, Bäckström Mats, Kancleris Žilvinas Andrius. Shielding effectiveness of modern energy-saving glasses and Windows. IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation. ISSN 0018-926X. vol. 65, iss.8 (2017), p. 4250-4258.
  27. Dalius Seliuta, Gediminas Šlekas, Andrius Vaitkūnas, Žilvinas Andrius Kancleris, Gintaras Valušis. Enhancement of higher-order plasmonic modes in a dense array of split-ring resonators. Optics express. ISSN 1094-4087. vol. 25, iss.21 (2017), p. 25113-25124.
  28. Paulius Ragulis, Rimantas Simniškis, Mindaugas Dagys, Žilvinas Andrius Kancleris. Wideband resistive sensors for double-ridged waveguides. IEEE transactions on plasma science. ISSN 0093-3813. vol. 45, no. 10 (2017), p. 2748-2754.